View Single Post
  #132   Report Post  
Posted to,alt.binaries.schematics.electronic,sci.electronics.basics
John Larkin[_3_] John Larkin[_3_] is offline
external usenet poster
Posts: 231
Default "Random" Circuit Needed.

On Wed, 29 Apr 2015 02:16:52 -0500, "Tim Williams"

Er, well.. surely an LFSR will be flat, not Gaussian, no?

Single bit digital noise has a PDF with two big impulses, about the
worst approximation to Gaussian (or flat) imaginable. So you need to
sum a LOT of them to get something sort of Gaussian... the Central
Limit Theorem thing. Hence the 20 KHz filter. Higher-order filters
work way better than single-pole ones.

If you nab 16-bit words from the shift register, and not the single
bit, you start with a basically flat histogram. Summing a modest
number of them gets Gaussian pretty fast. That's harder to Spice.

Fortunately, there is an app\\\ transform for that:
shouldn't be too bad to implement on FPGA. Log can be very crudely
obtained as the highest active ('1') bit position, and can be improved
iteratively (by repeated squarings and bit-shifts, or Taylor series
polynomial approximation methods).

Obviously, to shoot it out of a DAC, the bounds must be strictly limited,
so part of your spec will be how many sigma of Gaussian it's good for
(usually 3 or so?).

We have a +-10 volt DAC range, and we figure that 1 volt RMS is a good
number, and our 15-tap FIR filter will give us a crest factor of about
5.5. That sounds OK; I don't think our customers would want truly
Gaussian noise with infinite voltage spikes.

Which, in turn, implies that the argument of the log can't be near zero
(which is what produces the peaky outliers), and certainly can't be zero
exactly (which would be undefined), so perhaps the LFSR's inherent bias
could be tuned to match the dynamic range of the desired output? Nah,
probably not, not for any reasonable sequence length. So you'll have to
do something ugly (and hopefully not badly behaved), like RND * scale +

There are also methods for that -- ensuring that an output of truncated,
arbitrary range is calculated correctly from an even distribution in some
other range.

The geometric form is interesting, too; a random time delay could trigger
a S&H of complementary (90 degree phase shifted) sine waves, and the other
random number could feed a suitable arrangement of matched diode junctions
or OTAs which computes the sqrt(ln(x)) function, and simultaneously
controls the gain on the S&H buffers.

The "random" time delay has a strictly bounded range, so it could be
triggered on a fixed clock, 'computed', then 'registered' with a second
S&H on the following clock pulse, to give regularly sampled outputs (same
as you'd use extra D-flops to neaten up the transitions in a digital logic
circuit). Who even needs a DAC?

Or you could randomly sample a sin/cos table and vary the VREF into an
MDAC, or...

A tapped analog delay line is easy to Spice. If you poke in random
values and evenly sum the taps, that amounts to summing a sucession of
samples, so it does the Central Limit thing for you. And it's also a
finite-impulse-response filter. Everything turns out the be the same
thing, just looked at from different angles.

I really need a histogram back end for LT Spice. Snarl, snap, I guess
I'll have to make one.


John Larkin Highland Technology, Inc
picosecond timing laser drivers and controllers

jlarkin att highlandtechnology dott com